Germany has a large share of immigrants, particularly from Turkey, the successor states of Yugoslavia, and Eastern Europe. Regular migration is strictly monitored, and internal controls limit the space for the shadow economy and irregular migrant work. While regularization programmes have never been implemented, authorities officially tolerate those irregular migrants who cannot be deported for practical or humanitarian reasons. Numbers of irregular foreign residents are estimated to have declined to 100 000 to 400 000 persons.
CLANDESTINO Policy Brief (August 2009)