For decades, migration flows were largely dominated by immigrants from former colonies in Asia, Africa and the Carribean, which led to large settled minorities. From the late 1990s, immigration became increasingly diverse. Migration became a highly contentious issue on the political and public agenda, concerning both regular and irregular immigrants. While border enforcement was traditionally tough in the UK, internal enforcement only recently shifted from a liberal to a more restrictive approach, involving increased surveillance and police cooperation.
CLANDESTINO Policy Brief (July 2009)